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Boosting Happiness: Understanding our biochemistry and the power of our choices

Updated: Jan 24

Happiness isn't just a state of mind; biochemically, happiness is a captivating fusion of neurotransmitters and hormones, conducting a symphony within the complex neural networks of our brain and physiology. These essential players—serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, and oxytocin—govern our emotional responses and shape our sense of happiness. Their coordinated actions influence our mood, emotions, and overall satisfaction, defining our experiences of joy and fulfilment. Exploring the intricate mechanisms by which these biochemical messengers operate not only reveals the complexity of our happiness but also offers pathways to optimise our overall quality of life and boost our happiness.

Let's explore each of them:

Endorphins: The Elixir of Joy

Endorphins are neuropeptides produced by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland, acting as neurotransmitters to block pain perception and promote feelings of pleasure.

Endorphins act as natural painkillers and stress relievers. Understanding the various triggers that prompt their release can help individuals incorporate activities and habits into their lives that foster the production of these feel good chemicals, contributing to an overall sense of wellbeing and relaxation.

Triggers for endorphin production and release include:

1. Physical Exercise: Engaging in regular exercise, especially aerobic activities like running, swimming, or dancing, triggers the release of endorphins. This contributes to the well known "runner's high" and feelings of euphoria and wellbeing.

2. Laughter and Joyful Activities: Laughter stimulates endorphin release. Engaging in activities that bring joy, such as watching a comedy show, spending time with loved ones, or engaging in hobbies, can elevate endorphin levels.

3. Intimate Connections: Physical intimacy and sexual activity trigger the release of endorphins, contributing to feelings of pleasure and bonding between partners.

4. Positive Sensory Experiences: Certain sensory experiences, like receiving a massage or acupuncture, can prompt the release of endorphins, leading to relaxation and pain relief.

5. Consumption of Certain Foods: Some foods, like dark chocolate, contain compounds that can stimulate the release of endorphins, contributing to a temporary mood boost and feelings of pleasure.

6. Stress Reduction: Activities that reduce stress, such as meditation, deep breathing exercises, or engaging in calming rituals, can promote the release of endorphins, aiding in relaxation and stress relief.

Oxytocin: The Bonding Molecule

Oxytocin, often referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," is produced primarily in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. It's synthesised by specialised neurons and released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland, a pea sized structure at the base of the brain.

The release of oxytocin is a key component in forming social bonds, promoting trust, empathy, and feelings of closeness. It influences various aspects of human behaviour and emotional responses, contributing significantly to our social interactions and overall sense of connection with others.

Several factors trigger the production and release of oxytocin:

1. Physical Touch: Oxytocin is famously linked to social bonding and intimacy. Physical touch, such as hugging, kissing, cuddling, or holding hands, triggers the release of oxytocin. These actions foster a sense of connection and trust between individuals.

2. Acts of Kindness: Engaging in acts of kindness, such as giving compliments, offering help, or performing altruistic deeds, stimulates the production of oxytocin. This contributes to feelings of empathy and bonding with others.

3. Social Interactions: Positive social interactions, such as engaging in conversations with friends or loved ones, can lead to increased oxytocin levels. Meaningful connections and support networks play a role in oxytocin release.

4. Childbirth and Breastfeeding: Oxytocin plays a critical role in childbirth, where it facilitates uterine contractions during labour and helps with milk ejection during breastfeeding. Both these processes trigger the release of oxytocin.

5. Positive Memories: Recalling or experiencing positive memories and experiences, particularly those associated with social bonding or affectionate moments, can also stimulate the production of oxytocin.

6. Stress Reduction: Oxytocin acts as a natural stress reliever. When stress levels decrease, oxytocin production tends to increase, promoting feelings of relaxation and wellbeing.

Dopamine: The Rewarding Surge

Dopamine is often referred to as the "reward" or "pleasure" neurotransmitter produced mainly in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area of the brain.

Dopamine is involved in motivation, reward seeking behaviour, and pleasure. It plays a significant role in regulating mood, motivation, and reinforcement of certain behaviours.

Understanding the triggers for dopamine release helps in fostering habits and experiences that promote its production, contributing to a more rewarding and motivated lifestyle.

Triggers for dopamine production and release encompass:

1. Accomplishing Goals: Achieving personal or professional goals activates dopamine release. It acts as a reward signal in the brain, reinforcing behaviours associated with achievement.

2. Pleasurable Activities: Engaging in enjoyable or rewarding activities prompts dopamine release. This includes activities like listening to music, dancing, playing games, and other pleasurable experiences.

3. Novelty and Excitement: New experiences and novel stimuli stimulate dopamine production. Exploring new places, trying new hobbies, or engaging in adventurous activities can trigger dopamine release.

4. Physical Exercise: Exercise boosts dopamine levels. It promotes the release of dopamine in the brain, contributing to feelings of pleasure and motivation during and after physical activity.

5. Food and Nutrition: Consuming certain foods, particularly those high in sugar or fat, can temporarily increase dopamine levels. However, a balanced diet with adequate protein also supports dopamine production.

6. Social Recognition and Validation: Positive social interactions and receiving recognition or validation for achievements can lead to dopamine release, reinforcing social connections and a sense of accomplishment.

Serotonin: The Mood Balancer

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter primarily produced in the brainstem's raphe nuclei and also found in the gastrointestinal tract. It's synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan, which comes from the foods we eat.

Serotonin is involved in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and cognitive functions. Adequate levels of serotonin contribute to feelings of wellbeing, contentment, and emotional stability. Understanding how various factors influence its production helps in adopting lifestyle habits that promote serotonin release, thereby fostering a more balanced and positive emotional state.

Triggers for serotonin production and release include:

1. Diet and Nutrition: Serotonin synthesis requires tryptophan, found in certain foods like turkey, eggs, cheese, nuts, and tofu. A diet rich in these sources can support serotonin production.

2. Exposure to Sunlight: Sunlight stimulates the production of serotonin. Sun exposure triggers the release of serotonin in the brain, contributing to improved mood and a sense of well-being. This is why sunlight exposure is associated with mood regulation, particularly in conditions like seasonal affective disorder (SAD).

3. Exercise: Physical activity can boost serotonin levels. Regular exercise prompts the release of serotonin, contributing to feelings of happiness and reducing stress and anxiety.

4. Nature and Environment: Spending time in natural surroundings, such as parks or green spaces, has been linked to increased serotonin levels and improved mood.

5. Social Interactions and Support: Positive social interactions and a strong support network have been shown to increase serotonin levels, fostering a sense of belonging and contentment.

6. Mindfulness and Meditation: Practices like meditation, deep breathing exercises, and mindfulness can positively impact serotonin levels, promoting a calmer state of mind and emotional balance.


Happiness isn't just a feeling; it's a complex biochemical interplay governed by neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine, endorphins, and oxytocin. These biochemical players significantly influence our emotions and overall wellbeing. What's striking is that our daily choices, ranging from dietary habits to our daily activities, hold tremendous sway over this intricate biochemical balance, ultimately shaping our happiness.

Understanding this truth unveils our profound capacity to steer the course of our own joy. Realising that our actions intricately compose the rhythm of joy within our biology highlights the immense power vested in our choices. Through mindfulness and a deeper comprehension of our biochemical makeup, we become architects of our wellbeing, fostering a happier and more fulfilling life.



- The neuroscience of positive emotions and affect: Implications for cultivating happiness and wellbeing -Rebecca Alexander,Oriana R. Aragón,Jamila Bookwala,Nicolas Cherbuin,Justine M. Gatt,Ian J. Kahrilas,Niklas Kästner,Alistair Lawrence,Leroy Lowe,Robert G. Morrison,Sven C. Mueller,Robin Nusslock,Christos Papadelis,Kelly L. Polnaszek et al. -February 2021

- How dopamine Enhaces an iptimism bias human -Tali Sharot,Marc Guitart-Masip,Christoph W. Korn,Rumana Chowdhury,Raymond J. Dolan - 21 August 2012

- -Biochemistry, serotonin - Arjun Bakshi; Prasanna Tadi - Last Update: October 5, 2022.

- - Oxytocin, motivation and the role of dopamine -Tiffany M. Love - April 2014



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